A Distributed Algorithm for Efficient Parking of Driverless Vehicle

Published: 2021-09-04 17:25:11
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Category: Computer Science, Communication

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Vehicular Ad Hoc network is one of the major aspect of Mobile Ad Hoc network which make possible the communication among vehicles and creates a largest network were vehicle are the nodes. Today vehicles are becoming greater in size which leads to parking problems. To overcome the parking problems caused by the increasing vehicle population a distributed algorithm has been developed, which enables arrange maximum number of vehicles in the parking area and if there is a possibility of collision among vehicles while leaving the remaining vehicles will move in such a way that there is minimum number of movements.
Vehicular ad hoc network is one of the interesting extent that caches the attention of researchers because of its low cost, flexibility, fault tolerance, high sensing fidelity, creating many new and exciting application areas for remote sensing. That’s why it has come forth as a outdo in comparison tool for monitoring the physical world with wireless sensor that can sense, process and communicate. Their applications range from safety and crash avoidance to Internet access and multimedia. VANETs are considered as one of the ad hoc network real-life application enabling communications among nearby vehicles as well as between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment, usually described as roadside equipment.Vehicle to vehicle communication: It is multi-hop multicast/broadcast communication used to transmit traffic related information over multiple hops to a group of receivers. ITS is generally concerned with the road ahead and not on the road behind. ITS mainly used two
types of message forwarding techniques, Nave Broadcasting and Intelligent Broadcasting
Vehicle to infrastructure communication: Also known as V2I communication. Here the Road Side Unit (RSU) broadcasts message to the vehicles in the vicinity. This type of configuration provides ample amount of bandwidth link between communicating parties. Mostly used for traffic optimization messages.
Inter road side communication: It’s a multi-hop unicast method where a message is transmitted in a multi-hop fashion until it reaches the desired vehicle. It is combination of both V2V and V2I communication. Mostly used for both safety and non-safety message transmission, infotainment services etc.
Parking is turn into one of the serious problems that is bring into existence by the elaboration of vehicle community which leads to road traffic too. It is a marked drawback of transport development system. The unavailability of parking space in urban areas has increased the demand for parking space especially in areas like cities and busy areas. This have an influence on mode choice also. It is extremely important to organize traffic surveys that one may design the facilities or plan efficient parking systems.
Parking facilities are a major expense to society and parking conflicts are among the most common problems facing infrastructure planners. These problems can be most often described either in terms of supply or in terms of management. Parking management
describes the process of optimizing the use of parking policies while making use of policies and programs that are applicable to parking. A well-thought out parking strategy often helps reduce the number of parking spots required in a particular situation and provides a variety of socio-economical and environmental benefits. When all factors are taken into consideration, improved management is often the best solution to parking problems. Parking efficiency is the ratio of number of bays occupied in a time duration to the total space available. It gives an aggregate measure of how effectively the parking space is utilized.
This proposed method A Distributed Algorithm for Efficient Parking of Driverless Vehicle enables

Arrange maximum number of vehicles in parking space
If there is a possibility of collision among vehicles then move vehicles in such a way that there is minimum number of movements

Shahroz Tariq propose an effective methodology called Controlled Parking for Self-Driving Cars. In this system parking slots is represented as a graph. Each parking slot, pathway and entrance point are represented as P-node, T-node and E-node, jointly. In order to link these nodes there are some rules which are needed to be followed to complete the graph.

P-node can only be linked to one or more T-node.
T-node can be linked to any node.
E-node can only be linked to a T-node.

This algorithm is used to tell the car about the nearest parking slot available to it from the entryway i.e. to act as a “Parking Control Service” (PCS). A shortest path finding algorithm ( Dijkstra’s algorithm ) have used to act as a parking service provider by finding the efficient path. Whenever a car arrives at a particular E-node, it will request the PCS to find the nearest free P-node in the graph and forward the car to that position and change that P-node’s state to occupied. Similarly, whenever a car wants to leave a request is made to the PCS for the nearest E-nod. The reason for generating these two sets of path separately is that a shortest path from a particular E-node to some P-node while parking, may not be the shortest path while exiting, since it can have more options for E-nodes.
Hong-Yi Chang developed a novel algorithm for searching parking space in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are a lot of factor will influence parking searching time. Competition is one of the problem which means that more than one vehicle gets the same available parking space information and goes to the parking spaces at the same time. Drivers have to repeat the process of looking for and identifying free slot. Simultaneous request from two users for the same parking slot may perplex the ideas of parking service controller. cle in the first row left then the remaining vehicles will rearrange in the same pattern.
Parking lot is half full
If the parking lot is half full, that is the alternate rows are full filled then the expected vehicles are parked in the intermediate free slot. Through this arrangement procedure RSU can reduce initial complexity of vehicle movement. The arrangement will progress till the fulfillment of m-1 th column of last row.
Only one slot remain
If there is only one parking slot is remaining in the parking lot(Figure:8) then the forthcoming vehicle is not supposed to park. Because vehicle movement id depend on the uttermost free slot in the last row. If it is filled then the vehicle have no space to move. So that RSU will send no free slot message to that particular vehicle. The RSU will follow this way of arrangement so that it can include maximum number of vehicles. If a vehicle need to leave but it is in a blocked condition then other vehicles will move and give way to exit the parking space with minimum number of movements.
The issues that need to be solved to implement the proposed system are following,

How to find free parking lot in the parking area
Find an efficient mechanism for vacancy management and vehicle parking
Guidance to leave the parking lot

Rules for entering and leaving of vehicles

Initially arrange vehicles in first row till the last column ’m’
hen fill 2 consecutive rows after skipping the intermediate row
Continue till reach the last row
Finally fill all intermediate free slots except the last one
If all vehicles are parked
Return true
When a departing message is received
Find all possible movements to leave the slot
Select a path with minimum movement is available then
Return true

The Vehicle which have the ability to sense its surrounding and steer without human involvement is called autonomous vehicle. Driver-less vehicles are navigated by the help of three devices an onboard unit, GPS and a digital map. On-board unit (OBU) for networking and computation of messages, a global positioning system (GPS) is used to locate the geographical position of the vehicle, and a digital map is used to identify the movement. Vehicles communicate with one another using data link technology within a range of 10s minimum travel time (the minimum range is 110 meters and maximum is 300 meters).
Parking lot is considered as an n/m grid where ‘i’ represents the rows and ’j’ represents the columns. There are n rows and m columns. It has only one entrance and exit. At the entrance there is an RSU which plays the role of a surveyor and take charge of entire slots and vehicles communicates with that. If RSU is inactive then vehicles will aimlessly wander around to find parking slot. Each parking space are deployed a sensor to regularly sense parking space status. The sensors are ultrasonic sensors. Sensors and onboard units broadcast the information to RSU that will keep up to date information of vehicles and slots. Each vehicle and slot has a unique identity which can be either a pseudonym or a real identity.
Algorithm Notations
V – Vehicle
S – Slot
i – Rows
j – Columns
L(ij) – Location of slot
M – Message
Zeroth Level Algorithm

Request from a vehicle is arrived;
if (Number of vehicle
Check free slots by leaving intermediate rows;
Send location of the allocated slot;
Forward vehicle;
if Vehicle need to leave then
Find a path with minimum number of movements
No slot Available;

Vehicle Authentication
Vehicle discover RSU by direct vehicle to roadside communication or v2R communication through V2V communication if vehicle is out of the communication range of RSU. A special packet format called ICMP is proposed to discover RSU which is very similar to ICMP solicitation and advertisement. Vehicle sends solicitation packet for discovery and if RSU has been discovered and ready to serve then it sends replay in advertisement packet format. After this step vehicle and RSU can be known each other. The algorithm for vehicle authentication is following.

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