Analysis of Pre-service Efl Teachers' Perceptions Towards Tpack Implementation

Published: 2021-09-15 12:05:10
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Category: Learning, Impact of Technology

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In recent issue, technology is part of nearly every aspect of life and it cannot be denied that it affects dramatically on education. There are some advantages that technology offers to the education. One of them as Blake (2008) stated that technology allows student to gain access to the subject material. In classrooms today, because of the access to information and educational opportunity that technology has enabled, we see the teacher’s role shifting to the “guide on the side” and students take more responsibility to gather relevant information for their own learning using technology. Then, technology is changing how teachers and students interact with information and with each other. By integrating technology into teaching, teachers are required to be more interactive and innovative (Chen, Liao, Chen & Lee, 2011) but it is not merely about integrate technology into teaching or what technology is best for teaching but how technology can enhance and reimagine teaching practice with mindful of pedagogy and rich subject matter (Hunter, 2015). It means that the use of technology means nothing without the consideration of other components namely pedagogy and subject content. As Pamuk (2011, p.2) stated that technology can be effective and support learning only if it is meaningfully integrated into teaching. Hence, technology can help education only with the appropriate integration.
Thenceforth, the journey of integrating technology into the classrooms is not necessarily an easy one. There are some other things that we have to consider about. Pedagogy and content matter are components that we have to have well-consideration to. As Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich (as cited in Li et al., 2016, p.2) argued that “teachers did not already integrate technology into classrooms, at least not in a meaningful way.” However, several studies found out that teachers’ technology usage in teaching was not sufficient (Gu¨ lbahar & Guven; Hew & Brush; Hsu; as cited in Li et al., 2016, p.2). TechnologyIntegration into classroom teaching and learning continue to be a challenging task for many teachers (Shafer, 2008; So & Kim, 2009). Therefore, teacher development on ICT usage for teaching and learning continue to be a concern. Thus, in order to get impacts positively in educational processes and learning outcomes, educators need to explore how we go about integrating technology and how to prepare pre-service teacher as the future teacher with this technological issue.
Pre-service teacher is a student teacher (Ulla, 2016) who enrolled in a teacher preparation program and working toward teacher certification and it also known as teacher candidates (IGI Global, n.d.). In that case, they required to follow practicum of teaching experience in a school setting as well as internship or student teaching (Nuland, 2011). They observed and practiced teaching in a school and apply theoretical, practical and experiential knowledge to construct understanding of professional issues through the practice teaching program. Nuland (2011) also stated that with support provided by an experienced teacher and an advisor assigned by the faculty or school of education, practicum teaching allowed teacher candidates experienced ‘the daily teaching and learning process’ and understand a classroom setting. For this reason, Tuli & File (as cited in Ulla, 2016) believed that the “most important part of teacher education program” is practicum teaching experiences among pre-service teachers. Hence, the writer chose final year students in English department which had followed internship program (PPL) for this study because of their field practicum experience.
Afterward, this study also included perception. According to Angell (1906) defined perception as “the consciousness of particular material things present to sense.” Then, definition of perception for English Language Learners (ELLs) based on Merriam-Webster dictionary is “the way you think about or understand someone or something” it also can be defined as “the way that you notice or understand something using one of your sense.” Another definition of perception according to Munhall (2008) is “a mode of apprehending reality and experience through the sense, thus enabling discernment of figure, form, language, behavior, and action.” Briefly, perception refers to an opinion, belief, thought, based on how thing seem through human sense. Thus, the writer analyse what pre-service teachers feel, believe, and think about their capability on TPACK implementation in the classroom based on their teaching experiences.
Due to pre-service and early career teacher education research, according to Jamieson-Proctor, Finger and Albion (2010) on their study related to ICT confidence and capabilities in pre-service teachers, they found that generally student teachers had good basic IT skills but were less confident on its applications. Furthermore, being able to use technology does not necessarily mean being able to use technology critically, wisely, or meaningfully. Chai, Koh, and Tsai (2013, p.31) argued that technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) as one of theoretical framework has arisen recently to guide research in teachers’ use of ICT to address the challenges. Hence, the writer analysed perception of pre-service teachers viewed from TPACK implementation specifically in language learning.
In former times, Shulman (1986) defined there were two main components as an interchange on teaching and learning environment; pedagogical and content knowledge (PCK). It was used to characterize teachers’ knowledge of how subject matter should be taught. Shulman also stated that PCK “represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction”(Shulman, 1987, p.8) but in current concern, as a result of the increased integration of technology into teaching, Shulman’s idea is built on by adding a new technology component. To describe teachers’ body of knowledge in terms of how they made ‘intelligent pedagogical uses of technology’ Koehler et al. (2007, p.741) used technological pedagogical content knowledge or TPCK as its term. Then, there is a modification of TPCK term in order to ease of pronunciation and also to emphasize the integrated use of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge for effective technology integration. The acronym of TPCK was later changed to TPACK (Thompson & Mishra, 2007). Since its development, TPACK were restructured as an underlying conceptual framework by many teacher education programs (Niess et al.; Burns; Niess; Shoffner; as cited in Koh, Chai & Tsai, 2010).
Based on the background above, the writer identified that for many teachers, technology integration into classroom teaching and learning continue to be a challenging task because pedagogy and content matter should be involved before we integrate technology into education as a well-consideration. From the background above, the writer also found that teachers’ technology usage in teaching was not sufficient. Educators need to explore how to go about integrating technology in the classroom especially for pre-service teachers that generally had good basic IT skills but were less confident with applications. In brief, it can be identified that in this advance technology, educators especially pre-service teachers need to be prepared to explore and make sense of their TPACK for teaching in various subjects during their learning processes (Koh & Divaharan, 2011; Niess, 2011). So that, describing the TPACK implementation of pre-service teachers would provide valuable insight for organizing and teaching pre-service teachers effective technology integration strategies before they proceed into service. Therefore, writer interest in analysing the perception of pre-service teachers towards implementation of TPACK in language learning.
Scope and Limitation
Scope
The scope of the study is to analyse pre-service EFL teachers’ perception towards the implementation of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in language learning.
Limitation
In this research, the writer focused on pre-service EFL teachers’ responses from their cognitive aspect and technology integration from the use of technology device for teaching towards the implementation of EFL-TPACK questionnaire in language learning.
Research Question
The research questions of this study are:

How is pre-service EFL teachers’ perception from their cognitive aspect towards TPACK implementation?
How do pre-service teachers integrate technology device into the language learning classroom?

Objective of the Study
This research is related to the implementation of TPACK issues with a study of pre-service EFL teachers. The purpose of this study is to describe the pre-service EFL teachers’ perception from their cognitive aspect towards TPACK implementation.
Significances of the Study
Theoretically
The result of the research is expected to provide information about EFL teachers’ cognitive perceptions toward TPACK implementation questionnaire.
Practically
For Teacher Education
To know what course is needed for organizing and teaching pre-service teachers. Hence pre-service teachers are able to integrate technology confidently in teaching process.
For Researcher
To know pre-service EFL teachers’ perceptions viewed from technological pedagogical content knowledge implementation also to increase the ability of writer in writing scientific papers.

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