Analyze a Efficient of Algal Removal by Using Biochar

Published: 2021-09-12 07:10:10
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Algae
Algae are simple aquatic plant, don’t have true roots, stems and leaves. Algae coming under the group of organism called eukaryote. But the blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) are exception. The range of algae is unicellular micro algae to multicellular forms. Many of them are aquatic and autotrophic. Seaweeds are the most complex marine algae and the most complex freshwater algae is chorophyta. Algae play important part in aquatic food chain, as they are main sink for zooplankton & small fish. Freshwater algae and cyanobacteria are responsible for approximately fifty percent of the global (terrestrial and marine) net primary production(Curd, Chapelle and Siano, 2014). They require water, carbon dioxide, temperature(Zohary and Robarts, 2011), light, pH, and inorganic substances such as phosphorous and nitrogen(Pedersen and Borum, 1996) to develop their growth.
A rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems called as algal bloom. True algae, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are in marine and freshwater bodies around the world. Many blooms are an aesthetic nuisance, some species of algae produce toxins that kill fish, shellfish, humans, livestock and wildlife. In freshwater multiplying of toxin-producing cyanobacteria are simply called “cyanobacterial blooms” or “toxic algal blooms.” These blooms initially appear green and may later turn blue, sometimes forming a “scum” in the water.Historically algal blooms have been considered a natural phenomenon. In recent years harmful algae appears is increased. Agricultural runoff and other pollutants of freshwater and marine wetlands and water bodies have resulted in increased nutrient loading of phosphorus and nitrogen, thus providing conditions favorable to the growth of potentially toxic algae. Some cyanobacteria produce toxins that can affect domestic animals and humans. Some of these toxins such as cyanobacterial toxins (including anatoxins, microcystins, and nodularins) have rarely been documented, as the cause of bird mortality. Anatoxins from freshwater cyanobacteria, affect the nervous system; cyanobacteria that contain microcystins or nodularin cause liver damage. The effects of some harmful algae are related to depleted dissolved oxygen concentrations in water caused by algal proliferation, death, and decay, or night respiration, they are not related to toxin production. Other harmful effects are occlusion of sunlight by large numbers of algae and physical damage to the gills of fish caused by the structure of some algal organisms(Creekmore, 2000).
Biochar
Various sorbents have been developed, ranging from natural materials to synthetic products. Among those sorbents developed, the C-based sorbents have proven to be most cost-effective in removing algae & algal toxin from fresh water. Biochar used as a soil amendment. Biochar is a stable solid. It have high amount of carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. To increase soil fertility of acidic soils, increase agricultural productivity and provide protection against some soil-borne diseases we can use biochar. Biochar is a major biosorbent for environmental remediation(Xu et al., 2013).
In recent years, there has been research focusing on how to treat drinking water by using appropriate & low cost technology. Research has also been focused on using locally available raw materials for water treatment (Misihairabgwi et al.,). Biochar has been widely used worldwide as an effective filtration or adsorption material for removing algae & algal toxins from drinking water. Each of the biochars has its own characteristic properties and variation exists in the efficiency of removal of a range of impurities from waste water. Characterisation of the carbons is important in the formulation of a consistent quality carbon that can be used in water treatment plants. The main aim of the study will to apply biochar prepared from local agroforestry wastes in water treatment and assess the efficiency of the carbons in the removal of algae & algal toxins in water.
The physical properties of biochar is use full for its many practical applications. During pyrolysis, thermal decomposition will leave behind a microporous carbon skeleton resembling the original structure. This gives the biochar an extremely high surface area (500–2000 m2g-1), a relatively low density, and excellent adsorptive properties. These properties are greatly influenced by the properties of the biomass feedstock such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content, inorganic composition, and pre-handling conditions. The conditions of pyrolysis such as temperature, reaction time, and reactor type also contribute to the properties of the final product. The high surface area of most biochars is attributed to its porosity. The value of surface area is apparent in many of the same applications as porosity including molecule adsorption, microbial growth, high cation exchange capacity (CEC), and water absorption. It is possible to increase the surface area and porosity of biochar through industrial activation processes. This activation process including physical & chemical activation. Just as with traditional activated carbon, the micropores (<2nm diameter) and macropores (>50nm diameter) found in biochar are responsible for many of its industrial applications.
Problem Statement
Consuming fresh water is the serious environmental problem. Algae & algal toxin extraction before consuming is major healthy legislation of Sri Lankan Standards Institution, Sri Lanka. Most of the algae & algal toxin removal techniques are inefficient, expensive, complicated, time consuming, required highly skilled labor.
Adsorption is the effective method for algae & algal toxin extraction from fresh water. Usually Activated carbon is used as an adsorbent. It has good potential to remove pollutants. But the problem, it is an expensive. So it is better find low cost adsorbents. Researchers already find the potential of biochar from gliricidia bark (Gliricidia sepium) adsorption ability of pollutants. But there is no idea about biochar from other tree parts such as palmyrah seed and Sargassum algae. If above tree parts would have the capability for algae & algal toxin adsorption, it is the next level of low cost treatment for freshwater which polluted by algae.
Originality and Innovativeness of the Proposed Work
Few of the researches have done already to find the adsorption potential of Gliricidia bark (Gliricidia sepium). But Comparative studies of algae & algal toxin removal by adsorption using Palmyrah seed, Sargassum algae and Gliricidia have not been reported. In this present study not only the feasibility comparison, but also evaluate the require time and require adsorbent dosage for few ratio of algal toxin concentration. I should tell that “if the research will be succeeded, it helps to the consumers who get water polluted by algae & algal toxin”.
Objective

Assess the algae & algal toxin adsorption potential of Biochars produce from palmyrah seed Sargassum and gliricidia biomass by barrel method.
Characterize the different Biochars using physical & chemical method.
Evaluate the adsorption rate of Palmyrah seed, Sargassum algae and Gliricidia.
Compare the adsorption ability of each.

Materials and Methodology
Prepare three kind of adsorbent from Palmyrah seed and Sargassum algae.

Adsorbent from Palmyrah Seed:- Palmyrah Seeds will be collected from Karainagar, Jaffna. Selected seeds will be washed several time to eliminate the impurities and other soluble particles. Allow to air dry under sun shade until the crispy appearance. Grind the seeds using local mixer grinder to less than 30 mm before they will added into a stainless steel container. The reactor will then put in a prepared barrel system and heated under O2-limited condition at either 200 or 650°C. After 4h of heating, the barrel system will turned off and the sample will allowed to cool to room temperature. Powder will be sieved. The solid residue left in the barrel will designated as biochar and those produced from palmyrah seeds at either 200 or 650°C will referred to as PBC. Store in vacuum desiccator until the usage.
Adsorbent from Sargassum:- Sargassum will be collected from Pannai Beach, Jaffna. Selected sargassum will be washed several time to eliminate the impurities and other soluble particles. Allow to air dry under sun shade. Grind the Sargassum algae using local mixer grinder to less than 30 mm before they will added into a stainless steel container. The reactor will then put in a prepared barrel system and heated under O2-limited condition at either 200 or 650°C. After 4h of heating, the barrel system will turned off and the sample will allowed to cool to room temperature. Powder will be sieved. The solid residue left in the reactor will designated as biochar and those produced from Sargassum at either 200 or 650°C will referred to as SBC. Store in vacuum desiccator until the usage.
Adsorbent from Gliricidia:- Gliricidia will be collected from Karainagar, Jaffna. Selected Gliricidia will be washed several time to eliminate the impurities and other soluble particles. Allow to air dry under sun shade until the crispy appearance. Grind the seeds using local mixer grinder to less than 30 mm before they will added into a stainless steel container. The reactor will then put in a prepared barrel system and heated under O2-limited condition at either 200 or 650°C. After 4h of heating, the barrel system will turned off and the sample will allowed to cool to room temperature. Powder will be sieved. The solid residue left in the reactor will designated as biochar and those produced from Gliricidia at either 200 or 650°C will referred to as GBC. Store in vacuum desiccator until the usage.

Here we will use Costal sand as a control experiment. Coastal sand will collected from cosatal site in Jaffna. After collect costal sand it will washed with water and dried. Grain size was 0.355 mm.
The water samples were collected at Iranaimadu tank, Dryaru tank and Akkarayan tank located in Kilinochchi, Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Totally six samples will collected, two of samples from each Iranaimadu tank, Dryaru tank and Akkarayan tank. Samples will collected four times in each location during the dry and wet season.
The sample will take by using the plankton net from each location. Then the sample will poured into 500 ml plastic bottle after labeled the sample will transported to Fisheries Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Jaffna.
Lugol’s solution will added to the collected water samples will be used for algal identification. Lugol’s solution will prepared by dissolving 10g pure iodine in distilled water, then 20g potassium iodide will added then the volume completed to 200ml distilled water, then 20 ml glacial acetic acid will added and kept until performing the microscopic examine.
After all samples will transported to the laboratory, the identification and counting procedure will began. Firstly, table will disinfected by using 70% ethanol. Then Sedgwick rafter and coverslip will cleaned with sprit in front of sprit lamping. After that, the coverslip will placed over the Sedgwick rafter. Sample will mixed (up and down) three times; the well-mixed sample will filled by 10 µl pipette and sample will loaded into Sedgwick rafter. Then the Sedgwick rafter will placed under microscope with a typical magnification of 10×10, and magnification will adjusted into 10×20, 10×40. Finally, algal genera will identified with the help of microscopic features, previous literatures and identification keys and the number will counted per ml.
Laboratory Methodology for Filter Modification
The methodology of this research consisted of a number of stages such as the construction of a model of the filter, preparation of filter materials, lab testing.
Construction of the Filter Model
In order to conduct lab tests using different filter media configurations, a filter model will constructed using Granular biochar created from Palmyrah seed, Sargassum and Gliricidia. The structure of the model will constructed using a column set up of 30 cm height and 3.81 cm radius pipe will performed to filter the algae rich water through biochar. The lower compartment of the model with 100 mm of height will to collect filtered water. Saline pipe will connected at side of the lower compartment, as the effluent of the filtered water.
Then powdered biochar which particle size was less than 30mm. It was added into the pipe and finally the water samples were filtered through that bio-char. The raw water and the filtered water will examined through the microscope while counting the density of algae by using Sedgwick rafter.
Control Sytem:- Sand Filter

Experiment No-1:- Biochar of Palmyrah Seed
Experiment No-2:- Biochar of Sargassum
Experiment No-3:- Biochar of Gliricidia

Data Analysis
ANOVA statistical test will be used for the data analysement. Adsorption isotherm will be derived.
Expected Outcome
I’m expecting the result that the Biochar from Palmyrah seed also have the potential to remove algae & algal toxin from the fresh water. Adsorption capability within the same amount of Biochar from Palmyrah seed, Sargassum and Gliricidia, Palmyrah seed has high capability.
Time Line
Activity Time duration in weeks
July
August
September
October
November
December
3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Problem identification
Literature review
Proposal Preparation
Proposal Presentation
Adsorbent preparation
Experimental process
Statistical analysis
Comparative evaluation
Thesis preparation
Final presentation
Thesis submission

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