The context in which employees do their work is increasingly shifting outwards. As the cooperation between employees does not solely rely on internal collaboration anymore, trends show that external collaboration increases in popularity. Inside these networks there are mutual dependencies between actors, as either sides are dependent of each other due to material or immaterial means. Kuppenjan and Klijn distinguish five types of means:
Production resources (e.g. personnel and equipment);
Competence (including the formal power to take certain decisions);
Knowledge (e.g. knowledge in people’s heads and knowledge in documents);
Legitimacy (e.g. an elected political body which, with its support, has the additional power to gives weight to a project or policy initiative).
The extent to which actors are interdependent is determined by the importance that the resources of others and the possibility of replacing them means. Replacement of funds is possible by involving them through other actors. The idea here is that more can be achieved together than alone. Leadership styles for effective collaboration 21 Cooperation in the networked society is predominantly asymmetric Dependencies. One actor is then more dependent on another actor than the other way around. Actors are not always aware of their dependencies, which means that they have their own strength may overestimate. In this case, the actor’s behavior does not correspond to the dependence of others, with all the consequences that entails.
Dependence between actors is high when the importance of resources is high and replaceability is low. Where the product is readily replaceable while the importance of the medium is high, then there is a low dependence between actors etcetera. The activities of organizations are increasingly being subject to variety and a greater variation in the qualifications required is needed, which is not always the case are distributed over several persons. This implies that ‘what’, ‘who’, ‘how’ and ‘when’ are in many cases, decisions are only taken during implementation, with decisions taken by the one party. The operator, in this case the municipality, has an influence on that of another (citizens) and vice versa. In short, the team members of the different organizations are mutually dependent on each other, there is then of ‘mutual interdependence’. With such a form of interdependence, it is desirable to that people coordinate their activities. Mintzberg (1983) calls this method the coordination of mutual adjustment. The harmonization often also relates to mutual influence, the search for solutions together and learning from each other. The collaboration in the network society between organizations has been in several literature sources described as a solution to tackle today’s (social) problems. In that case, different organizations and parties will usually work together on a project to solve these problems. A project is generally a temporary joint venture of persons from different parts of the organization who to achieve a specific objective. The project organization is the whole of temporary joint ventures, partly filled with Employees from the company’s own organization, some of which are external staff. The projects know usually have a specific objective and a specific timeframe. After the expiry of the time limit they will be dissolved. Team members can access information and exchange knowledge with a view to arriving at a common analysis, together with a decision but also to carry out a task together.