Debate on the Environmental Negative Effects of Fracking and Other Fossil Fuels Extraction

Published: 2021-09-29 10:05:09
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Category: Environment Problems

Type of paper: Essay

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Abstract
In this essay is described one of the ways of extracting petroleum and gas- hydraulic fracturing. It is the process of pushing high-pressured liquid that contains chemicals into a wellbore. Fracturing has a damaging effect on the environment, but it is widely used all over the world because the economic benefits are much higher than while using traditional methods of getting natural resources. In the essay both advantages and disadvantages of the method were shown. The definition of hydraulic fracturing was given and the way it is performed was described. Reading the essay, the reader also can observe the difference between the way of extracting oil and gas. In spite of the harmful effect on the nature, this method is currently underway in the USA, some Europeans and South American countries.
People started extracting petroleum and nature gas thousands years ago. Centuries revolved and gradually new ways of getting these natural resources were changing. Step by step humanity came to hydraulic fracturing.Hydraulic fracturing is the process of fracturing of rock with the help of a pressurized liquid. There are also natural ways of fractures-certain veins or dikes. During the process of hydraulic fracturing a high-pressure liquid (as a rule, water that contains sand and chemicals) is injected into the wellbore(the hole is drilled in order to extract or to explore the natural resources).It is done in order to create small fractures in the deep rock formation for allowing natural gas and petroleum to migrate to the well. When the pressure is removed, small grains of hydraulic fracturing proppant hold open the small fracture.
The process of getting oil and gas are quite equal, but still there is some difference because gas resources (also called shale plays) were oceans in ancient times that have formed into very hard shale deposits and thus different chemicals are used.
Nowadays hydraulic fracturing is used in many countries: USA(Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Wyoming); Europe(Russia, Denmark, Poland, Netherlands); South America(Argentina, Mexico, Brazil).
Hydraulic fracturing brought certain economic benefits: in 2011 the amount of gained money reached $120 billion while costs were at the level of $18 billion (Goodrich, 2013). However, the damaging effect is much bigger. Chemicals used while this process damage the environment and in addition to that in may also lead to dramatic economic effects(Bakken Shale, where diesel is used to fuel the pumps).
Gas and petroleum has become an essential part of the industry. Every year more and more gallons of the natural resources are extracting, and that brings profits to the owners of the pumps. Nevertheless, no one may forget about other people, their needs, and the nature.Mankind should remember about the alternative ways of getting petroleum and stop pollution.

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