Development of mechatronics in today’s world has led to the improvement of Artificial Intelligence(AI) and Robotics. Even though these studies ,and their implementation provides a new way to live the human life, there are some defects which they have caused or are yet to cause. Although Stephen Hawking criticized the growth of artificial intelligence, professionals and corporate life cannot resist the upcoming changes. However , it is also important to observe the services made by AI systems inorder to make a human life easier. In medical fields artificial systems such as socially assistive robots is beneficial to human life by making doctor’s job easier. In engineering fields many AI systems performs the job of the employee more accurately and efficiently, thereby increasing the profit of the organizations. However it is more effective for the organization to invest on AI systems or machines rather than paying the labour charges to the employees which would increase their investments. It is also noticeable that AI is used to produce many illegal actions against the society. When it comes to security AI is weak as it can be easily fooled by hackers. These limitations of AI makes people think whether AI can be developed further or not. It is also important to understand that the use of AI cannot be completely diminished since it has its own applications which would assist humans in some aspects of life. But AI used to a great extent may cause problems like unemployment, destruction of human life when AI is programmed with wrong intensions . However it is also mandatory to understand that AI cannot possess creativity and emotions as humans do. Infact, it is true that AI cannot work without being fed with the knowledge and experience of humans. It also requires frequent updates and maintainance which is always done by a human. So the relationship between AI and humans are interconnected by assisting eachother in different perspectives of life.
Artificial Intelligence is considered as the ability of a system to gather knowledge and reason the knowledge to solve complex problems. Learning from the knowledge obtained is also the ability of AI systems. Future intelligent machines may replace human capabilities in some areas which does not include creativity.Inorder to confirm that the developed machine is intelligent, turing test is been conducted. Turing test is been proposed by Alan Turing.It contains an interrogator who frames questions against a human and a machine placed in different rooms. Depending upon the answers obtained , the interrogator must find out the presence of a machine. If not then , the machine is considered to be intelligent. However creativity is a piece of human intelligence which cannot be generated by intelligent machines.
Artificial Intelligence has both advantages and disadvantages which must be considered before building any intelligent machine.
The completion of mundane tasks which would reduce the labour hours and would make skilled workers to concentrate on other important jobs.
Usually intelligent machines makes less or no errors, whereas humans would make errors.
Speed of the automated system saves time.
Critical jobs which contains high risks can be easily completed by an automated machine.
Job loses are caused by automated systems which is still a rising disadvantage of artificial intelligence.
AI works on pre-existing knowledge and lacks creativity. Use of AI in creative aspects would cause failure.
AI may not be able to make secured decision during disaster situations.
Areas of Artificial Intelligence
Language understanding:- It is the ability of the system to understand the natural language . It involves converting from one naturall language to another natural language. It also involves converting a natural language from spoken for to the written form. Examples are:-
Semantic Information Processing
Learning and Adaptive System:- It is the ability to learn from previous experience and develop new rules from it. Examples are:
Problem solving:- It is the ability to represent a problem in a particular form applying manipulation techniques on it to obtain a solution. Example:
Perception :- It is the ability to analyse the sensed scene with the internal model which consists of knowledge about the world. The result of this analysis is the set of relationship between two objects. Examples are:-
Modelling :- It is an ability todevelop a representation model and set of rules that depicts the behaviour of the real world objects. Examples are:-
Representation of problem in problem solving
Robotics :- It constitutes the combination of all the above areas including movement and modification facilities
Games :- In this area the set of rules fed into the system in been converted into a structure on which manipulation techniques are used to play a game
APPLICATIONS OF ARITIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Uses Of AI In Medicine
Patients are benefited in a higher perspective by the use of AI in hospitals. IBM has benefited many medical areas by providing a winning system Watson which determines the best treatment for cancer patients. Physicians plug in the patients diagnosis into IBM Watson and obtain a best treatments for cancer patients.
Socially Assistive Robots
Socially Intelligent robotics is a study of creating robots which are capable of exhibiting natural social qualities. Other than moving and acting capabilities, robotics field has focused on the use of robots to communicate and interact with humans. This field has also focused on helping humans through physical interaction by robots. This study of human-robot interaction is new and finds more applications in today’s world. This field develops assistant robots, that serves the elderly, individuals with physical challenges and those who are effected with crucial medical disorders.
Applications of socially assistive robot:
Care of Elderly:- A research has depicted that in the year 2050 there would be three times more people over the age of 85 than there are today. There would be serious issues regarding lack of staff members in nursing home. This led to the need of assistant robots. The first assistive robots are robotic pet which are also called as companion robots. They reduce stress and depression without any need of effort required to care for a pet. This made the elderly people to improve physiologically and psychologically.
Care of individuals with physical recovery rehabilitation and training needs :- Motivation, rehabilitation and training are the key factors to recover fromsevere strokes. Stroke patients have difficulty with everyday functional movements and activities. Rehabilitation involves exercise in two different methods :
Passive :- Robot or a person motivates and helps patients to do exercises. Robotics concentrates in passive exercises. Eriksson and Malaric demonstrated a hands-off therapist robot which interacts by encouraging and motivating the patients. Kang and Mataric demonstrated a therapist robot which monitors and encourages the cardiac patient.
Active :- Patient him/herself does exercises on own
Care of Individuals with cognitive disabilities:- People effected by cognitive disabilities are treated on the basis of social skills, eye to eye gaze, facial expressions, body postures and gestures. This becomes difficult for the doctors to select an appropriate treatment for individual and reporting results. Hence assistive robots are used here which responds to the patient’s behaviour and to create reports.
New York University’s Langone Medical Center is developing an AI system which predicts dangerous conditions of sepsis and another system that alerts the doctors about heart trouble. The system scans the patient’s record when they are admitted and immediately alerts the doctor if any heart disorder is found.
In September 2016 a remote controlled robotic surgeon called Robotic Retinal Dissection Device (R2D2) was used in Oxford University John Radcliffe Hospital. This robot surgeon performed a surgery in which it removed 100th membrane of millimetre thick from the retina of the right eye of Dr. William Beaver that successfully cured his blindness and resurrecting his ability to see normally. This was the first time that a robot was used to perform a surgery.
After gaining approval from the Food and Drug Administration in 2000, robots were used widely in surgeries. Usually robots are used to perform surgeries that involve small cuts which is not more than a quarter inch long. However robots cannot perform these surgeries without human assistance. They make surgeon’s job easier.
Uses Of AI In Engineering:
Engineering is a process which is expensive, iterative and time consuming. Humans give their designs by considering their experience, knowledge and creativity. But humans are capable of giving only few solutions to the given problem whereas an AI system can give multiple solutions. This led to a drastic improvement in engineering through AI systems.
Today we can give the design requirements to the AI engineer which develops a model from scratch using machine learning algorithms called Generative Models.
Generative Models are capable of providing complex optimal solutions to a given problem which involves large amount of variables.
For example designing a car involves finding optimal balance between ergonomics, structural integrity, fuel, efficiency, etc. Bandito Brothers created the most optimal race car by collecting 4 billion data points over a week by setting up stretch sensors to all the stress points of the race car. The designers took took this data and fed it in to a generative model called Dream Catcher.
The Dream catcher software utilized the large amount of the input data and developed an efficient race car design that involved large computing power. This use of AI system provides unlimited number of ways a race car can be designed.
Generative Models are also used in the field of Quantun Physics in the creation of 5th state of matter called Bose Einstein Condensate. To create 5th state of matter ,temperature should be in nano kelvins. Hence the matter was cooled by controlled lasers. In 2001 Eric A Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, Carl E Wieman received a nobel price for creating first Bose Einstein Condensate.
In May 2016, Australian National University research team introduced a bunch of atomic lasers into a generative model. The generative model created a Bose Einstein Condensate within an hour. This shows that complex probles can be sovled easily by AI system by continuous trail and errors.
Uses Of AI In Military:
The use of Artificial Intelligence in military applications avoids humans to perform high level tasks which might be risky. Use of AI speeds up data interpretation. Some AI applications use image recognition and processing the database which provides quick and accurate information that leads to better decision making. Its quick interpretation makes winning in a war much easier.
Some remotely piloted systems freed the limitations of protecting a human pilot.AI systems used in air defense protects the military base and even a city more efficiently than a person could do it.
It is said that the military field may not use AI- based system unless they are appreciably better than existing systems at achieving tasks such as interpreting image, bombing a target or planning a battle.
Problems due to Artificial Intelligence
According to Michael Williams, president of the University of North Texas Health , there are some tasks that machines can do much better than humans. In 2017, a survey by HIMSS Analytics and Healthcare IT News found that within two years. It predicts that 35 percent of health care organizations plan to adopt AI , but 15 percent of said that it was impossible for them to make a business case for adopting AI. And more 20 percent of them said that they thought technology was still underdeveloped.
Peter Slavin, president of Mass general believes that AI machines would provide high quality care tan humans. In April 2017, the Wired Magazine covered the next generation of personal healthcare robots to take over the job of domestic nurse by performing the functions such as reminding the patients about their medication, coaching patients to recover from chronic illness and communicate with the health professionals to help track patient progress. Hence the use of AI machine to care for your health is more convenient and cost friendly for senior citizens who live alone and are in need of full-time medical attention.
The use of AI machine in medicine may not replace family physician , but it makes the treatment more efficient and provides constant care for the patients. However it may replace the job of nurse.
Certain amount of artificial intelligence used in surgery may not replace surgeon but makes the job of a human surgeon ore easier. However AI machines cannot perform surgeries without human assistance. Similarly IBM Watson used in oncology treatment requires millions of real data to be fed in inorder to scan the patient and specify the best treatment. This machine may not replace oncologist, but may replace people who performs the test job for finding out the type of cancer. And if the data fed into IBM Watson is accurate then the best result can be obtained than a human tester could obtain.
It is important to note that machines cannot provide emotional and understanding as humans do. In medical hospitals it is also important to consider patient’s emotions along with their medical problems. Hence it is sure that a machine cannot provide emotional support which is an actual cure for the patients. However AI machines can assist the doctors inorder to carry out treatments in an efficient manner.
A study conducted in University of Oxford specifies that over 700 types of jobs are at risk of technology disruption. This mean about 47 percent of jobs are at risk because of Artificial Intelligence. The same study mentioned the concept of ‘technological bottleneck’ which determines the risks which would lead to job replacement by AI. The bottleneck takes three factors into account:
How much creative intelligence the role needs
If manual manipulation and perception is required
The importance of social intelligence in the role
If the role of the jobs requires any of those mentioned above in a high degree then it is at low risk from Artificial Intelligence. Best examples for this type of job are architect and engineers. Their field requires high level of creativity which cannot be computed by an AI machine. Hence it is proved that Artificial Intelligence can only replace jobs whose creativity level is low.
However AI will fall down when it comes to human relationships required for team work. An AI machine cannot understand that a person in the team is demotivated and the reason behind it. This makes skilled team members even more valuable.Artificial Intelligence cannot exist without its creation by human. Similarly it requires frequent updates and maintenance , otherwise it would become outdated in its own time.
In Military Field:
Artificial Intelligence used in military has high importance. But as China wanted to compete with US military force , it is set to create many AI systems to be used in military war. This is helpful only to some extent. AI programmed by a person with negative thoughts to destroy a nation may cause massive destruction similar to the one of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This would lead to an exposure to unexpected diseases which passes on to the upcoming generations and highly complicated to be cured.
It is true that some AI machines which are also used to protect a nation. This may seem to be an advantage of AI. But a war between AI machines would cause more destruction than it would if the war is between humans. This may lead to increased level of enemity between nations which would increase the chance of war.
Artificial Intelligence is a technology which cannot be fully diminished. AI has both positive and negative influence in all the growing fields. Many talks about job replacement may become a reality only to an extent. Jobs which has less amount of creativity, understanding and human relationships can be easily replaced by AI machines. In medical field always patients satisfy a treatment which involves emotional care and support by a doctor. But this type support cannot be provided by AI although it is used as a motivator for curing people with heart diseases and so on. Sometimes patients illness is due his/her state of mind. Psycological problems can be detected and solved only by humans which cannot be solved and foremost determined by AI machines. In engineering fields AI is of great importance as it increases the profit made by the organizations. But according to an employee’s point of view some jobs with less creativity level can be replaced by AI machines. However AI used in machine learning or any other fields would learn from experience or by observing. But when an event is occurring for the first time then it is impossible for an AI system to analyse and decide what should be done. Whereas humans will be able to make decisions by looking at a problem and solve it creatively. AI used in military fields would cause massive destruction even though some AI machines are coded to save the environment. Hence while creation of the upcoming AI machines, must consider the limitations it would cause and proceed by correcting those limitations which would make AI more eco friendly rather than a destructor.