Bluetooth is an open wireless technology responsible for transmitting data between electronic devices over short ranges. This technology is used to transfer data between other electronic devices, but there is a limitation that the data can be transmitted in a small range in comparison to other wireless communication modes. It is high speed and is designed to connect phones, laptops and other portable equipment and is a low power microwave link technology.History of Bluetooth
Ericsson invented Bluetooth in 1994. The term Bluetooth came from a Danish king ‘Harold Bluetooth’ who was responsible for the formation of the union of Norway, Sweden and Denmark in the 10th century. Ericsson later started working with the SIG (Bluetooth Special Interest group). Bluetooth is not owned by any particular company and in maintained by SIG.
What is Bluetooth technology?
Bluetooth technology comprises three things a base-band processor, a radio and antenna. The data is converted into signals by base-band processor, the antenna of another Bluetooth device within a range of 30 feet which receives a transmitted signal in air.
The Bluetooth technology uses FHSS (Frequency hopping spread spectrum techniques) which is one of the modulation techniques which is responsible for spread spectrum signal transmission.
To reduce any unlawful access during radio transmission the frequency is switched continuously which prevents from any unlawful transmission paths and interruption.
Types of Bluetooth devices:
In-car Bluetooth system
Bluetooth equipped Web cam
Bluetooth GPS system
Bluetooth key Board
Importance of Bluetooth
Bluetooth has taken the place of cables for transmission of data from one electronic device to another. It has decreased the strains like you don’t need to carry phones while talking, hands free to do another work. Bluetooth does not need any internet connection or any power outlet and is cheaply available.
In Bluetooth, signals can be easily transmitted through walls so there is no need of line of sight and as we know that signals are omnidirectional, the devices are not required to point at each-other. In PICONET up to eight devices can be networked. There is an addition of a strong layer of security because Bluetooth separates the frequency into hops and to hop from one channel to another, the spread spectrum is used. As the entire worldwide governments regulate it, so there will be no difference and is possible to use the same standard everywhere.
Transmission types and rates:
The base band (Single channel per line) protocol combines circuit and packet switching. Slots up to five can be reserved for synchronous packets to assure that the arrival of packets is not out of order. A different hop signal is used for each packet, Circuit switching can be either asynchronous or synchronous. Up to three (voice) data channels or one synchronous and one asynchronous data channel can be supported on one channel. For full adequate voice transmissions each synchronous channel can support at a rate of 64kb/s. Asynchronous channel can transmit at 57.6 kb/s in opposite direction and 721kb/s in one direction. An asynchronous connection supports 432.6 kb/s in both directions if the link is symmetric.
Authentication and encryption is provided at the link manager layer. A translation is being done from a pin into a 128 bit link key for authentication. After the authentication radios will settle on a suitable length encryption key which is to be used. To establish trusted relationships between devices the Bluetooth has to rely on PIN code.
Future of Bluetooth:
The new version Bluetooth 5.0 is two times faster than the old one. There will be less delay and the range will be four times, Bluetooth 4.0 had an outdoor range of 50m and Indoor range of 10m whereas Bluetooth 5.0 has a range of 200m and Indoor 40m. The best thing about 5.0 is that it can connect multiple devices at a time.
Through Bluetooth you can now connect various items like smart toothbrush which helps improve your brushing technique, smart headphones with smart voice control and smart running shoes to track your speed and pace.
Bluetooth has a wide opportunity in the future market as from smart cities to homes, you can now turn the things into reality like home automation and smart building.
Data and voice cables are being eliminated by this new global standard. The cost is low, power is low and is helpful for short range data transfer. It has a bright future and great benefits because of its wide use, further improvements are planned to be made in: