Thesis: This paper will investigate the growing problem of the corruption of the United Kingdom humanitarian aid. The significant impacts of this corruption are that the funding is misused to contribute conflict in that developing countries. It will then recommend some rational solutions to it and then evaluate the effectiveness of these solutions.Situation
Topic sentence: the United Kingdom is facing a crisis of high and rising humanitarian corruption.
£186 million (1970) increase to £13933 million (2017) (Statistics on International Development, 2018)
UK ↑ 1/3 foreign aid spending, more than any other country in Europe last year. (Holehouse, 2014)
UK aid → the world’s most corrupt countries ↑ 10% in 2016. (Calderwood, 2018)
UK sends aid money to 18/20 of the world’s most corrupt countries. (Calderwood, 2018)
Topic sentence: Poverty and incompetent anti-corruption agencies are the main causes of humanitarian corruption in those countries funded by the British government.
Poverty = the most corrupt countries — the poorest citizens (ravished by war and violence) — E.g. Somalia, South Sudan and Syria (Top3 in 2017) (Mike, 2018)
Incompetent anti-corruption agencies = in countries where progress has been slow — inefficient — political interference, a lack of independence and a general lack of political will. (Gatium, 2015)
Topic sentence: Consequently, sustained violent conflicts are more likely to break out due to the misuse of the aid.
The first relevant idea is that the United Kingdom aid is effectively used by the terrorist group rather than the poor.
The BBC investigation “Jihadis You Pay For”: ASI — backed by U.K. taxpayer funds — knowingly funded terrorist activities and failed to act swiftly (Anders & Edwards, 2017)
Panorama: FSP station officers who are paid in cash → forced to hand over funds to extremist groups. (Anders & Edwards, 2017)
TI: Aid supplies — water, food, medicine can be stolen and sold on the black market. → Neil Bhatiya: when resource scarcity → extremist groups use the resource as a recruiting tool (Benson, 2018)
Secondly, some countries use British assistance funds to develop weapons and military.
Pakistan received £374m from the UK in 2015, but spending £2.1bn a year on nuclear arms operations. (BBC News, 2017)
In southern Sudan, a campaign (millions of dollars in charity in the UK and other developed countries) → Sudan People’s Liberation Army use the diverted funds to buy arms and ammunition (Harker 2000)
Ethiopia diverted humanitarian aid → procure weapons in the build-up to its border war with Eritrea (Cooper and Kyzer 2003)
Thirdly, some political parties have embezzled humanitarian aid to make the wealth needed to expand the party.
In 2006, Nouri al-Maliki (Prime minister for Iraq) → aid corruption → using to support his Shia party → creating authoritarianism and sectarianism → internal conflicts by fuelling anger over injustice and enabling powerful (Sabir, 2017)
Congo’s Mobutu Sese Seko (kleptocratic dictators) → propped up by foreign aid (including the British government — that would have preferred not to see them implemented.) (Acemoglu & A.Robinson, 2014)
In Kenya, voters who support the incumbent party = higher levels of foreign aid
voters who may be more in need but support the opposition = 3 times lower aid (Jablonski, 2010)
Topic sentence: Although the humanitarian corruption causes some serious problem, there are three solutions that donors, institutions and government can adopt.
By analyzing risks and local power structures in the invested country, the opportunity for corruption may be reduced.
Socio-political-economic analysis and mapping of corruption risks → emergency preparedness and wider risk assessment frameworks. (TI, none date)
Southern Somalia’s humanitarian sector — Over 120 in-depth interviews and community consultations — identify corruption risks and produce recommendations (how to mitigate those risks in the future) (TI, 2016)
The other solution is creating a confidential complaints systems.
a complaint — confidentiality and minimise retaliation risks for the complainant → Multiple complaint options (all potential users) — be made available and advertised. (Cyvoct, 2017)
DanChurchAid (DCA) and its partners — a complaints system — helps to adjust work and improve it (Adetunji, 2013)
In addition, increasing transparency in affairs and deals is also a common solution to decrease the humanitarian assistance corruption.
Better reporting and sharing of information → track progress – enabling greater visibility of funding to national and local actors – hold the signatories to account. (Steele, 2017)
Comité de la Charte — independent organisation in French (promote financial transparency)
NGO (financial and operational) audited by a certified auditor
NGO programmes and accounts subject to various external audits commissioned by donors (Larché, 1999)