Toxigenic fungi are a major problem in Pulses crops as they produce a multitude of toxic metabolites contaminating plants and food products. The attack caused by mung bean beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) has destroyed between 20 and 50% mung bean on the continent each year, and in certain areas this loss could be up to 100%. Losses in stored food products are highly prevalent in developing countries, especially among smallholder farmers. Among other developing countries, these losses come as a result of inadequate use of highly improved post-harvest technologies during storage. Faced with such devastating losses, many farmers do not want to risk their cowpeas. Instead, they sell them at harvest time when prices are the lowest. Mapping up strategies to reduce these losses will ensure food security, lead to rapid economic growth, and improve nutrition on the continent.Environmental condition is also one of the most important factors for quality control both in production and storage level. Among the environmental factors the relative humidity and temperature are most important for storing seed. With the emergence of simple post-harvest technologies, storage losses in mung bean can now be controlled without the use of pesticides. Many storage facilities have emerged, but sometimes are too expensive for many smallholder farmers in the tropics and sub-tropics to afford. Also, most of these farmers are not able to purchase pesticides to control pests and diseases during storage. Although the use of chemicals still remains a principal approach to solving post-harvest losses among many smallholder farmers, misuse of insecticides is common and causes health and environmental problems. According to grain losses may vary depending on the geographical location, the year, the atmospheric condition, the available postharvest technologies, and finally the amount of grain harvested. Due to the many factors influencing the rate of grain deterioration, it is exceedingly difficult to quantify the losses in stored grain.
Hermetic storage principally occurs in a controlled environment which continuously depletes oxygen and simultaneously increases carbon dioxide as a result of the respiratory activities of insects in the ecological system of a sealed storage. Modified atmospheres reduce the respiration and inhibit the growth of certain microorganisms depending on O2 and CO2 concentration in the packaging. Typically, this delays senescence and may reduce microbial spoilage. However, under certain circumstances, unfavorable modified atmosphere conditions accelerate senescence, physiological breakdown, and the produce become more susceptible to postharvest microorganisms. Current production of pulses relies heavily on pesticides input, however, numerous harmful effects on human health and on the environment highlight the need for more sustainable pest management and agricultural methods.