Status quo and future perspectives.Abstract
Nanotechnology is no longer a concept or a theory of the new world, it has turned into a new enabling technology over the years, with tremendous potential to revolutionize agriculture and livestock sector all over the globe, providing new tools for molecular and cellular biology, biotechnology, veterinary physiology, reproduction, giving more promising solutions in both pathogen detection and therapy, engineering of agriculture, incredible results in animal and food systems and many more. Nanotechnology refers to the manipulation, reduction and synthesis of materials at nano scale. Nanoparticles have distinct unique morphological charitiria which is quite different from their original bulk form. Recently, nanoparticles have been produced by industries for commercial application having huge benefits. Since nanotechnology serves diverse fields of science and technology, the fabrication of nanoparticles using the biological route is becoming the need of the day.
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles attracts the attentions of many researchers and industries to study microorganisms such as Bacteria, Fungi, Algae etc. as the perfect biological factories for the fabrication of different nanoparticles. Among the different systems which are blessed for their potential as bionanofactories, the fungal system has emerged as an efficient most suitable system synthesizing metal nanoparticles by different mechanisms and for many reasons mentioned later. This review highlights the term “Myconanotechnology” in an attempt to direct more attention on fungi as a potential effective green approach in nanotechnology through conducting a SWOT analysis consisting of strengths, weaknesses, future opportunities of myconanosynthesis and probable constraints through eliciting questions for the possibility of using them in large scale production.
Key words: Fungi, Nanoparticles, Applications, livestock
The world’s nowadays challenges are demanding effective scientific contribution to solve major problems regarding national security like food safety, both early diagnosis and treatment of diseases and others using green approaches. Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary science involving diverse parts of research and innovation. Nanoparticles are metal particles in the size scope of 1-100nm. Metal nanoparticles like gold, silver and platinum have won awesome consideration lately because of their crucial and mechanical intrigue. These nanoparticles have one of a kind synergist, electronic and optical properties particular from the first metallic particles.
Previously, many approaches have been designed to synthesize nanoparticles such as physical method, chemical and biological ones. The physical and chemical methods involve the use of strong chemical reducing agents such as sodium borohydride and weak reducing agents like sodium citrate, alcohols, use of gamma rays and UV rays, etc. Studies have reported that the biological methods constituate an inexpensive and eco-friendly route for synthesis of nanoparticles. So far, synthesis of nanoparticles has been demonstrated by the use of biological agents like bacteria, fungi, yeast and plants. A number of bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Thermonospora sp., Shewanella algae, Lactobacillus strains, etc. have been proven for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.Yeast have also been studied for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles including Candida glabrata, Schizosaccaharomyces pombe, MKY3 etc. The synthesis of nanoparticles by fungi, and their subsequent application, particularly in medicine are studied under Myconanotechnology. While, a number of plants like Medicago sativa, Pelargonium graveolans, Azadirachta indica, Triticum, Cinnamomum camphora, Capsicum annum have been used for the fabrication of metal nanoparticles. Myconanotechnology is the interface between ‘Mycology’ and ‘Nanotechnology’ and has considerable potential, partly due to the wide range and diversity of the fungi.
Applications of nanotechnology in the veterinary sector:
Nanotechnology has great potential to solve many more problems related to animal health, production, reproduction, effective hygienic practices related to livestock production. Although much more research is still necessary before nanotechnology could have common place in veterinary and animal sciences. However, we will be highlighting here the most effective applications in the veterinary sector.
Drug delivery systems
Drug delivery systems in animals in all probability contain little, fixed bundles of the medication to be conveyed. Drug delivery systems permit reasonable utilization of moment amounts of anti-microbials than at any other time. A sub-atomic coded ‘address mark’ in the bundle could enable the bundle to be conveyed to the particular right site in the body. Nano and microscale mechanical frameworks would fill in as the ‘transporters’ in such a framework. Drug delivery systems could likewise contain on-board synthetic location and basic leadership ability for self-directed medication conveyance or supplement medicines according to require. This will help domesticated animals proprietors to control the utilization of anti-microbial and to diminish the consumption taking drugs. Smart drug delivery systems can likewise have the capacity to screen the impacts of the conveyance of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, supplements, sustenance supplements, bioactive mixes, probiotics, synthetic concoctions and antibodies.
Diagnosis and treatment of animal disease
Biochips can be utilized for early diagnosis of diseases in animals. A Biochip (or microarray) is a gadget regularly made of hundreds or thousands of short strands of artificial DNA saved unequivocally on a silicon circuit. Biochips can also be used to trace the original source of food and feeds to detect the presence of animal products from different species as a means to determine the source of pathogens a response to public health threats such as avian flu and mad cow disease.. Besides, there are different varieties that recognize minute amounts of proteins and synthetic substances in an example, making them compelling for identifying biowarfare specialists or malady. Utilizing biochips, natural examples, for example, blood, tissue and semen can be momentarily broke down and controlled. Bioanalytical nanosensors are gadgets or frameworks that measure or distinguish a substance with the utilization of an organic material or tissue which will empower us with recognition of moment measures of an either synthetic or natural contaminants as infection or microscopic organisms in farming and domesticated animals framework.
Nanoshells are another sort of optically tunable nanoparticle made out of a dielectric (for instance, silica) center covered with a ultra-thin metallic (for instance, gold) layer. Nanoshells can be infused into the animals’s circulation system with focused operators connected to the nanoshells to search out and append to the surface receptors of tumor cells. Brightening of the body with infrared light raises the cell temperature to around 55°C, which ‘consumes’ and demolishes the tumor. Others have been exploring different avenues regarding ‘keen’ super paramagnetic nanoparticles, which when infused in the circulation system target tumor receptor cells. These nanoparticles are produced using iron oxides that when subjected to an attractive field upgrades the capacity of the nanoparticles to find tumor cells. At the site of the tumor the nanoparticles discharge the stacked medication to decimate the malignancy cells.
Other type of nanomaterial is Quantum dots which are nanometre-scale gems that were initially produced for optoelectronicn applications. Quantum spots might be infused into the circulation system of animals and they may distinguish cells that are breaking down. As quantum dots react to light it might be conceivable to enlighten the body with light and animate the quantum dab to warm up adequate to execute the carcinogenic cell. Nucleic corrosive building based tests and techniques offer great better approaches to convey helpful or protection treatment for specific ailments. These different techniques for nanotechnology can be a fantastic remedial apparatus in beating the health problems of animals.
Food safety through identity preservation
Identity preservation (IP) framework is a framework that builds up expanded an incentive by furnishing customers with data about the practices and exercises used to deliver a horticultural item. Today, through IP it is conceivable to give partners and customers the access to data, records and provider conventions in regards to the homestead of starting point, natural practices utilized as a part of creation, nourishment wellbeing and security, and data with respect to creature welfare issues. Quality confirmation of the wellbeing and security of farming and creature items could be essentially enhanced through IP at the nanoscale. The eventual fate of the meat business may well rely upon a capacity to track all phases in the life of the item, including the introduction of the animal, its medicinal history, and its developments between ranches, the slaughterhouse and the meatpacking plant, directly to the consumer’s table.
Breeding and Reproduction
Administration of rearing is a costly, difficult and tedious issue for dairy and swine ranchers. Among arrangements, one that as of now being contemplated is a nanotube embedded under the skin to give constant estimation of changes in the level of estradiol in Nanotechnology and its applications in Veterinary and Animal Science the blood. The nanotube are utilized as an apparatus for following oestrus in animals on the grounds that these tubes have the ability to tie and distinguish the estradiol counter acting agent at the season of oestrus by close infrared fluorescence. The flag from this sensor will be joined as a piece of a focal checking and control framework to incite reproducing. Microfluidics is utilized today in animal science to essentially streamline customary in vitro treatment techniques utilized as a part of animal reproduction.
It is being utilized as a part of domesticated animals reproducing to physically sort sperm and eggs. Microfluidic and nanofluidic are the frameworks which examine by controlling the stream of fluids or gases through a progression of little channels and valves, in this way arranging them, much as a PC circuit sorts information through wires and rationale doors. With the mapping of the human genome behind them, geneticists are currently quickly sequencing the genomes of steers, sheep, poultry, pig and other animals wanting to recognize quality successions that identify with financially profitable characteristics, for example, ailment obstruction and leanness of meat. By including tests for these attributes on biochips, raisers will have the capacity to in a split second distinguish champion reproducers and screen out hereditary diseases.
Microorganisms as bionanofactories
Lately nanoparticles have been created by enterprises for commertial application having numerous advantages. Green synthesis of nanoparticles pulls in numerous scientists and enterprises to investigate and demonstrate microorganisms could be the ideal organic framework for the generation of various nanoparticles. The metabolic action of these microorganisms empowers the additional cell or intracellular amalgamation of nanoparticles using diverse method of blend. Bacteria , viruses, actinomycetes, plants, fungi and parasites are altogether demonstrated for their capacity of metal particles reduction.
Advantages of biologically synthesized nanomaterials
Microorganisms exhibit the capability to reduce the toxicity of metal ions through bioreduction or by the aggregation of non-soluble complexes with metal ions to produce colloidal particles. nanomaterials are more definite in size than the chemically synthesized ones , in addition nanobiosynthesis is of course a less expensive and an eco- friendly method .
When fungi are involved in the synthesis of nanoparticles, the process is called mycofabrication. The fungal system in recent times has been proved as “Bionanofactories” synthesizing nanoparticles of many metals as silver, gold, platinum and CdS etc , actually fungi are blessed ;being a source of a lot of reducing enzymes makes it able to play a pivotal role in nanoparticle synthesis.
Fungi in nanoparticle synthesis:
From a total of 1.5 – 5.1million species of fungi found on Earth about seventy thousands species have been documented. Choosing Fungi for mycofabrication techniques is the best choice because of its high metal ion tolerance and bioaccumulation capacities beside many other advantages that will be mentioned later in details. Trials on mycosynthesis started at the beginning of this millennium, demonstrated the intracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Verticillium sp. by growing the fungus in a liquid medium and then transfer it to an aqueous solution of auric chloride, the fungal cells changed to vivid purple color within 24 hours, the synthesis of gold nanoparticles was proven by UV visible spectra of the fungal cells at 540 nm absorption peak which is characteristic for gold nanoparticles, with TEM(transmission electron microscope) the presence of nanoparticles was demonstrated with an average size of 20-28 nm on both cell wall and in the cytoplasm, the synthesized nanoparticles were mostly spherical and some were triangular and hexagonal.
After that, intracellular or extracellular mycosynthesis of a number of different metallic nanoparticles have been reported including cadmium, zirconia, magnetite, platinum, however, silver nanoparticles had the lion’s share in researchers’ work with a diverse fungal species which are capable to synthesize it either intracellular as A. flavus or extracellular as Phoma sp., A. fumigatus, A. niger, Penicillium sp., F.oxysporum, F.solani, Cladosporium sp. Yeast have also been studied for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles including Candida glabrata, Schizosaccaharomyces pombe, MKY3 etc. Research continued on myconanosynthesis by Aspergillus sp., as well as dermatophytes as M.canis, T. ruprum and T.mentagrophytes.