The Dominant and Recessive Allele of the Mung Beans and the Corn on the Cob

Published: 2021-09-22 01:35:08
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Category: Genetics

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Introduction
The primary purpose of this experiment is to find the dominant and recessive allele of the Mung beans and the corn on the cob. After that, the focus shifts to the inheritance of single and double gene pairs from the parent genes.
This experiment is important because these are the very basics of genetics. With a deeper understanding, it is possible to find the genetic makeup of more complex organisms like plants, animals, and humans.The hypothesis tested for the first part of the experiment is that the green seedling is the dominant allele while the albino seedling is the recessive allele. This can be found by using a Punnett square (monohybrid cross).
The hypothesis tested for the second part of the experiment is that the purple smooth kernels are the dominant alleles of the corn and that the yellow wrinkled kernels are the recessive alleles. This can also be found by using the Punnett square (dihybrid cross).
Both of these hypotheses were based on the concept of genetics passed from the parent genes to the offspring. There are more variables to test for the second part of the experiment as the corn on the cob has the two colors and two textures to it.
Materials and Methods
Mung beans were used for the first part of the experiment. The class average was found to be 178 seedlings. Corn on the cob was used for the second part of the experiment. Both the [picture of] Mung beans and the corn on the cob were provided by the lab instructor. A table of chi-square was provided by the instructor as well in order to find the degrees of freedom and p-value (Stallsmith).
To begin, the amount of green and white seedlings (Mung beans) were counted up separately. These observed amounts were used in order to find their genotypes on a Punnett square, which was the used to compare to the expected amount. The observed and expected amounts were then used to find the deviation, the chi-square, and the p-value. For the second part of the experiment with the corn on the cob, the amount of yellow, purple, smooth, and wrinkled kernels were counted up. As with the first part, these observed amounts were added to another Punnett square in order to find the genotype. These observed amounts were then used to find the deviation, the chi-square, and the p-value for the corn on the cob.
Results
A a
A AA Aa
a Aa aa
Number of green seedlings (A) Number of albino seedlings (a) Ratio of green to albino seedlings Total
Observed 144 (class total) 34 (class total) 4:1 178
Expected 134 44 3:1 178
Deviation (O-E) 10 -10
d2 100 100
Chi-square (∑[d2/E]) 100/134 = 0.746 100/44 = 2.27 0.746 + 2.27 = 3.016
degrees of freedom (variables – 1)
1
p-value 0.1 => Insignificant
AB (purple, smooth) Ab (purple, wrinkled) aB (yellow, smooth) ab (yellow, wrinkled)
AB AABB AABb AaBB AaBb
Ab AABb AAbb AaBb Aabb
aB AaBB AaBb aaBB aaBb
ab AaBb Aabb aaBb aabb
Number of purple smooth Number of purple wrinkled Number of yellow smooth Number of yellow wrinkled
234 (45.88) 102 (20) 118 (23.14) 56 (10.99)
Genotypes of purple smooth Genotypes of purple wrinkled Genotypes of yellow smooth Genotypes of yellow wrinkled
AABB, , AABb, AaBB, AaBb aaBB, aaBb aabb
Number of purple smooth Number of purple wrinkled Number of yellow smooth Number of yellow wrinkled
Observed 234 (46%) 102 (20%) 118 (23%) 56 (11%)
Expected 287 96 96 31
Deviation (O-E) -53 6 22 25
d2 2809 36 484 625
Chi-square (∑[d2/E]) 2809/287 = 9.79 36/96 = 0.38 484/96 = 5.04 625/31 = 20.16
degrees of freedom (variables – 1)
3 9.79 + 0.38 + 5.04 + 20.16 = 35.37
p-value 0.01> => Significant
Discussion
For the first part of the experiment, the phenotype of 4:1 was found for the observed number of seedlings. The chi-square of 3.016 was also found, along with the p-value close to the value of 0.1. For the second part of the experiment, the phenotype 46:20:23:11 was somehow found. The chi-square was 35.37, with a p-value less than 0.01.
The results did support both hypotheses. The first experiment had stronger data than the second experiment, but the dominant and recessive alleles were found for both the Mung beans and the corn on the cob.
In order to improve the experiment, there could have been a better or larger population of the beans and the kernels on the corn. There could have also been some counting errors when trying to find the amount of green:albino seedlings and the purple:yellow:wrinkled:smooth kernels.
This experiment was significant to the field of biology because it gives an introduction into Mendel’s genetics (Olby). Having a good concept of smaller scale genetic systems can lead to finding the dominant and recessive traits in human genetics and other complex systems.

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