The Representation of Current Social Issues Aravind Adiga's Novels

Published: 2021-09-14 09:55:09
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The social issues such as dowry, unemployment, child labor, discrimination, caste etc. in the olden age are restored by the modern dealings like gang rape, terrorism, prostitution, gambling, crime and corruption. But poverty and illiteracy are the main evils that still exist in the world. The modern Indian novelist Aravind Adiga highlights mainly these current social issues, poverty, illiteracy and unemployment in all his novels. In current age, people will come across existing affairs like quest for identity, loneliness, alienation, sense of non-belonging and existential disaster which is reflected on the pages of novel The White Tiger. He has a huge contribution that offers various formulae for the problems and concerns in the society. Rehabilitation is one of the most upcoming social matters of discussion in the new period.
The writings of Aravind Adiga circle around the social life of a mundane man. The pathetic condition of down trodden is deeply presented by Adiga and what forces an ordinary man to commit murder, to steal people and to force the people to go on off beam path is also presented by him. He has explored the realism of the life and presented the close views of the social life of common people. Analyzing the characters of Aravind Adiga, the researcher found out that they are too much real, his characters and situations are also real rather than supernatural.The modern novelists’ like- Shashi Deshpandey, Rabindranath Tagore, Aravind Adiga and others noted the social affairs in their works. They not only discover the reality of society but also they suggested the proper treatment of vile, which still exists in our society.
Adiga clearly proved that a writer cannot change the society or cannot remove the problem of social issues from the society, but his presentation of views can encourage the reader or can change the people to face any social issues in their life.
People knowingly get used to remain impolite rather than thinking about their solutions. Social issues or problems are huge but the right treatments for the social issues are in great need significantly.
At a time when India was going through great change and, with China, was likely to inherit the world from the west, it was important that writers like him try to highlight the brutal injustices of society. That’s what writers like Flaubert, Balzac and Dickens did in the 19th century and, as a result, England and France are better societies. That’s what I’m trying to do, it’s not an attack on the country, it’s about the greater process of self-examination.
He is a voice of poor social status, slum dwellers and oppressed class. His writing points the postcolonial tension: unrecoverable communal chauvinism, migration to cities for better life, wickedness of politicians, enraged laws, moral corruption, protest for free-market capital, lawlessness and anarchy in the social system.
Adiga’s description in the novel The White Tiger exhibits the aggravation and pain of a common man who struggles hard to claim his right to be at the Centre. This sometimes leads a person like Balram to involve cruel activity like murder. However, murder is not an acceptable reason to climb the ladder of success, yet Balram’s belief in humankind after achieving entrepreneurial summit is the result of his sinfulness and sorrow.
The White Tiger is the description of a journey of the protagonist Balram from rags to riches, accompanied by brutal class war, exploitation, morality and expanding globalization. Balram is compressed in a cruelly stratified society as a resident of dark India. He is unable to follow his education because of inevitable economic pressure. He is compelled to become a Halwai (sweet maker) and then a driver to a rich man’s foreign qualified son who lives in a sophisticated city. This sophisticated life opens up totally new and till now undiscovered horizons of life, riches, and success to him. He happens to examine, learn and practice completely new and surprising incidents, people and places there which resultantly make him take the revenge of the whole masses on the bourgeoisie. Novel validates the reality and significance of the Marxist ideas exposing various divisions and fissures within Indian societal structure.
The novel The White Tiger gives the detailed accounts of the Indian society—rural as well as urban and its various sides. Laxamangarh, Gaya, Dhanbad, Delhi and Bangalore are common, portray the picture of India. Poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, social order and culture clash, superstition, dowry practice, economic disparity, Zamindari system, and unfair treatment of marginal farmers and landless labourers, rise of Naxalism, corrupt education system, poor health services, sarcastic master-servant relationship, prostitution, exhausting family structure, financial success and its fallout etc. represent the basic structure of Indian society which largely forms the gloomy image of India.
The White Tiger is a story of this lower class and it is life-begging for food, sleeping under concrete fly over’s, excreting on the roadside, shivering in the cold, fighting in the 21st century, for its freedom. It is a story of an India of Light and an India of Darkness. It contains some of very sharp reservations about class that divide and demoralize India. The novel also portrays the brighter picture of dazzling India, social strength and developing India. However, so far financial growth has foolishly benefitted only the rich.
The novel The White Tiger is praised for the way it deals with larger social problems in the light of rising global advancements. The novel strongly portrays the widening emptiness between the rich and the poor. On the one hand, the rich shop in standout malls, stay in lavish apartments, have offices in skyscraper buildings epitomizing industrial growth and could negotiate real fair-haired prostitutes, whereas on the other hand, the poor shop in filthy areas, resides in uncultivated basements, stays in slums and have to convince themselves with sham prostitutes.
Some people feel this well-known and simple portrayal of India which is taken as abuse and shame to motherland. But in an interview for ‘The Guardian’ newspaper Adiga made it clear, what I’m trying to do is not an attack on the country; it’s about the greater process of self-examination.” … “We’ve got to get beyond that as Indians and take responsibilities for what is holding as back.” What is holding India back? The corruption, lack of health services for the poor and the presumption that the family is always the respository of good.
While the novel moves from country to city, the whole world of lower class also emigrates – their ill treatment and sufferings also emigrated along with them. With the worker working in the industrial set-up, taxi and auto drivers, servants, prostitutes, beggars, poor and shivering lots hiding under flyovers, underprivileged, corrupt police, legal and organizational arrangement, unfriendly master-servant relationship and lower class people emerges to big cities like Delhi and Bangalore witness both kinds of India. Balram’s voyage from Laxamangarh to Dhanbad out then to Delhi and finally to Bangalore endorses that the socio-psychological condition of the lower class remains unchanged. Though the cities give abundant opportunities of job, social behaviour and consciousness of the upper class is alike all over the place—whether it is a landowner or official, police official, public servant, superior caste people, rich man, businessman or industrialist. Everywhere lower class is trapped in Rooster Coop, struggling to come out of the cage. Balram is the principles of the lower class—their fury, aggravation, objection and vengeance, ready to take up a new moral code of behavior to achieve something in life. Murder of Ashok by Balram is the reaction of deep-rooted frustration of lower class experiencing the polarities between the upper class and lower class. Apart from these, pollution, excited practice of life, harmful effects of mobile, impact of city culture etc, create new territories of darkness in India.
India is shown as a rising capitalist supremacy in the world. Development in the ground of science and technology, space, transportation, hotel industry, tourism, real estate, expansion of cities, mall culture, industries and outsourcing etc describe the image of India. But all these developmental behavior depend on lower class with different individuality.
Aravind Adiga, a socially dedicated novelist, has shaped a good transaction of literature. His novels can be grouped into two categories, namely social and autobiographical. He focused his consideration on the sufferings, misery and misery of the poor, as a result of the development of the oppressed of the Indian society. Religious hypocrisy, feudal system, the place of woman in the society, dearth, starvation and exploitation are some of his ordinary themes. In all the novels Aravind Adiga conveys a social message to the people of India about the modern Indian society and he also tells how the poor people are living in crushing poverty. He stands in the front line of Indian Writing in English. He writes realistically and his characters are the persons whom he met. He is unquestionably the greatest artist of Indian Writing in English. His great works represent the lives of poor people in a practical and sympathetic manner.
Adiga’s novels and short stories present a tiny picture of Indian society, with special focus on the situation of poor people. Adiga’s first novel deals with the depression of the crushed and suppressed person and his struggle for a better life. His other novels and short stories are almost a variation on the same subject matter. Adiga’s Between the Assassinations has typical element as it deals with the struggle of the down trodden in India against the usual social order and the life history of young children, youth and famished millions of Indian people. In each stage their tragedy becomes worse and intensiifies without any aid. Adiga has taken the theme of his novels from real life and sufferings of the poor and so his novels are nothing but social realism.
Between the Assassinations presents the most beloved aspects of Adiga’s writing to luminous outcome: the class struggle affected personal and the rage of the suppressed. Adiga has focused the reader’s attention towards the various evils that affect our country. It is a social criticism bringing out the poverty and unhappiness of India and its religio-socio-political conflicts. Disgusting violation of people’s freedom and equality, poor-rich divide, bribery, religious passion, child labour and utter sufferings of the inferiors is the theme of the text.
The stories that Adiga has encountered in the novel are such that they can take place in any time, at any period in India; and it can be present-day India or before the murder of Mrs. Gandhi as well. Life in Kittur goes on despite violent behavior, class division, caste division, bribery, unfairness etc. The characters have deep genuine yearnings but are often limited from expressing their needs. They are compelled to believe the truth that existence can never take an unusual and heavenly turn. As the stories have no link with each other, so it is the life of every person. Alone the people come to this world; alone they face all the sufferings and pleasures and at last they move towards their final destination. Adiga by making every story stand by itself tries to generate the uniqueness and the true core that lies within the folds of each and every story.
Adiga’s description brings out multitudes of people of Kittur belonging to different castes, creeds and financial position. Life moves on in the rural community in spite of riots, bribery, inequality, poor-rich partition and violence that lift their dreadful heads time and time again.
Through the novel Between the Assassinations Adiga brings to light the ever widening gap between poor people and the rich people, which if uncontrolled may burn up in the form of violent behavior and terrorism. These are eye-openers to law makers and administrators to have the political will to deliver righteousness to the down trodden and the marginalized, rooting out bribery in all forms.
The Booker Prize win catapulted Adiga to worldwide celebrity. He has given a number of high sketch interviews to leading media outlets around the world. He is also greeted with well-known admiration in India. In these interviews, Adiga frequently tells that his book throws light on the lives of the poor in India which are being unnoticed by current development stories. The interviews also certainly broached with real world topics which gave chance for Adiga to publicly utter his political views.
Hence Adiga’s fiction defines a complete view of the altering socio-cultural, economic and political paradigms and how these change the lives of people in India. With the arrival of neo-liberalism and capitalism, the middle-class inhabitants of Vishram Tower- A, script a hope of their own by asserting their collective will. By embracing the winds of change brought in by economic liberalization and globalization, they fashion their identities. Last Man in Tower analyzzes the conflicts between individual and collective will power, between supply (real estate developer) and demand (prisoners of necessity), between principle and greed. Vishram Society which Mr. Adiga first characterized as anchored like a dread nought of middle class morality is shown to be anything but respectable, once money is calculated. In Last Man in Tower Adiga has decorated that money can not only break up a united community but also can paralyze their long conserved idea of idealism and sentimentalism.
Adiga delves deep into the minds of numerous characters, jumping between tower residents to show their motives and inspect how present Mumbai has enlarged their shortcomings. Adiga offers a convincing grim glimpse of human nature as these straight residents turn on one another annoyed with greed when they fear the outlook of losing their promised riches. Adiga takes the reader deep into the soul of Mumbai where no act can seem too distressed or too shameful; no wall can be built high enough to hold back the town realities.
In the novel Last Man in Tower, Adiga depicts the dreadful condition of modern society and expresses his serious concern. In the novel, Masterji is the last man in the tower who refuses to leave the apartment and he sacrifices his life for his age-old principle. His murder symbols the end of usual view in the direction of human values and the establishment of the new generation that is entirely in opposition to the traditional set up of society.
The novelist is entirely conscious that the present society is changing quickly. The wave of modernism is distressing every subject of life. But the changes are real on our social institutions. The norms of our century old institution such as marriage, family, education, economy and so on are being changed. And the changes in the norms of marriage are very significant. So the new age group does not pay much reverence to the earlier ones. This style of the new age group marks a particular aspect of society and hints at how speedily society is advancing.
A changing portrait of rustic and urban India is projected in the novel Last Man in Tower. It can be said that the common corruption, refuse of caste system, rise of greediness, development of technology, modernization, social mobility, law and legislator, cinema media, disloyalty, change in the norms of social institutions, isolation, extent of urbanization, globalization, consumerism and such are the same character which comprise the mode of the new generation and source the change in the consciousness of the man of the new generation. Here the novelist wants to express a message that it is the poison of casteism, communalism, regionalism, inequity on social, financial basis etc. which are the impediments in the way of development.
The novel Last Man in Tower is founded on the outline of a violent move, where the continued existence of the fittest is the final aim in the multi-ethnic merciless town of Mumbai, and the researcher brings out this uncertainty and brutality in the most relevant manner. The suffering and the sting that keeps lingering in the minds of those who suffer are unquestionably beyond understanding and acceptance. This is exactly the Mumbai real estate situation where life looks enriched with evils and accommodation seems engulfed in suffering.

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