Signs and symptoms of this can be if someone is; edgy/jumpy, anxious, depressed/withdrawn, fearful, in pain etc. Physical things you might see are; bruising, cuts/wounds, fractures or any injury that is unexplained. It is even more reason to be alarmed if these are present in well-hidden/conserved parts of the body i.e. under the arms or inner thighs.Domestic abuse is abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. This can be emotional/psychological, physical, sexual or financial abuse. Signs and symptoms of this can be if someone is; crying/upset, jumpy, withdrawn, anxious, scared etc. They may have had loss of sleep, feel controlled, have unexpected or unexplained change of behavior etc. You may also be able to see bruising, cuts, wounds etc. if domestic violence is present.
Sexual abuse is undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another. It is often perpetrated using force or by taking advantage of another. This is where something was not consented or the person was pressured into consenting and can include rape, sexual assault, sexual harassment, inappropriate touching or looking, sexual photography, sexual teasing or innuendos, indecent exposure. Signs of this can be if someone is; withdrawn, edgy/jumpy, confused/worried, upset, anxious, in pain etc. In some cases, you may see bruising, soreness around genitals, torn, stained or bloody underwear, sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy etc.
Emotional/psychological abuse is by a person subjecting, or exposing, another person to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. It can involve a person leading another to believe and think how they want them to. This abuse can include; threats of harm or abandonment, humiliation, intimidation, verbal abuse, cyber bullying, isolation. Signs and symptoms of this can be if someone is; withdrawn, anxious, fearful of sleeping, depressed, has low self-esteem etc. Some people can even feel suicidal. Some people have a tendency to stay in bed for long periods of time, lose their appetite or over eat. Financial/material abuse is when a person knowingly takes advantage of someone’s money or assets for their own profit. This can include; theft – taking/stealing money from someone, not allowing someone access to shared money, making someone an account for everything spent, making someone beg for money, preventing someone from gaining employment, causing someone to lose employment / forcing them to give up employment, taking out loans/credit cards or running up debts in the victim’s name (fraud), forcing someone to commit crimes for money, not allowing someone to spend their money on what they want, misuse of property, possessions or benefits. Signs and symptoms of this form of abuse can be if someone is; anxious and worried, withdrawn, paranoid, suspicious and not trusting etc. You may see certain objects go missing from their home and this might get more frequent. You may also see the person hiding things – their purse/wallet, valuables, treasured items etc. The person may seem more anxious than usual about how much money they may have, what shopping they are buying etc. If they aren’t buying the food and nutrition that they need because of this, they may also appear malnourished. You may see unexplained withdrawals from the bank, unusual activity in bank accounts, inconsistencies between the person’s financial resources and their living conditions, unpaid bills and an unexplained shortage of money.
Modern slavery is practices such as domestic servitude, forced labor, human trafficking, forced or servile marriage, the sale and exploitation of children, and debt bondage. This is mainly on vulnerable people. Ultimately, modern slavery can be something that is forced upon an individual or used as a means of exploitation. Signs and symptoms of this can be if someone is; anxious, depressed, submissive, tense, depressed etc. They may not like to hold eye contact with you and may feel low self-esteem. They may appear malnourished or dirty. They may seem under control, influenced by others and rarely interact. Some victims may live in the same clothes day in day out, live in small spaces and live and work from the same address. Some people may not have any identification documents with them and do not have many belongings.
Discriminatory abuse exists when values, beliefs or culture result in a misuse of power that denies opportunity to certain groups or individuals. It can be motivated by age, gender, sexuality, disability, religion, class, culture, language, race or ethnic origin. However, it’s not always motivated by one of these and can happen to any person about anything in relation to them. Signs and symptoms can be if someone is; withdrawn, sad, upset, confused, angry etc.
Institutional/organizational abuse is neglect and poor care practice. This can be a one-off incident or ongoing ill-treatment. This may include; inflexible and non-negotiable systems and routines, a lack of consideration of dietary requirements, name calling and inappropriate ways of addressing people, lack of activities and social opportunities, lack of adequate physical, health and medical care – an unkempt appearance, poor hygiene, etc.
Self-neglect is neglecting the care of yourself and includes various behaviors such as; disregarding your personal hygiene, health or surroundings resulting in an impact on your wellbeing, such as hoarding. Other signs and symptoms can be; failure to take prescribed medication, poor personal hygiene, poor levels of sanitation, neglecting their home environment / poor living conditions and poor environmental and household hygiene, substance misuse, failing to dispose of rubbish, etc.
Neglect by others is ignoring medical, emotional or physical care needs, failure to provide access to appropriate health, care and support or educational services, withholding the necessities of life, such as medication, adequate nutrition and heating. Signs and symptoms of this are; if someone has inadequate heating, lighting or food or fluids, someone is reluctant to accept help from other care professionals, poor physical condition (ulcers, bedsores, unkempt condition/appearance etc.), inappropriate or inadequate clothes, absence of appropriate privacy and dignity, absence of calling for assistance if it’s needed, etc.